The temple built by gods

by Jurgen Lett

“From now on my descendants shall administer the affairs of state,” said the sun goddess Amaterasu. “You shall cast a spell of establishing good relationship over people to lead them to a happy life “she told the god of the earth and the underworld Okuninushi. “I will build your residence with colossal columns and thick and broad planks.” According to Shinto mythology, when the other gods were gathered Amaterasu ordered them to build a grand temple at the foot of Mt. Uga. That grand temple is Izumo-taisha . We visited and were impressed with its vast scale, particularly as it was half the height it had been when it was built in 950AD. The sacred straw rope at the entrance to the Worship Hall is the largest in Japan and weighs 5 tonnes. Everything was monumental, befitting the gods.

The Grand Shrine of Izumo-taisha features the largest shimenawa (sacred straw rope) in Japan

As we rode into a town at the end of a day of cycling, I asked the local police where we could find Japanese-style accommodation. Invariably they directed us to a hotel or other Western style accommodation, costing two or three times our budgeted price. We found the cheaper Japanese inns, called ryokan, cost no more than youth hostels but had much better service. We searched out ryokan, and were never disappointed.

We began our ryokan stay with a wash in a traditional wooden bath, known as an ofuro. These were either a cedar box like that below, or a large barrel standing on end. Traditionally a fire underneath provided heating, so the water was really hot. Before getting in the ofuro I would sit on a low wooden seat and wet myself all over, using a ladle, with water from a wooden bucket. I would then soap myself, and wash off the soap with more water from the bucket. Only when I was perfectly clean did I get in the steaming bath. In this way many people share the same bath water. In larger ofuro several people can bathe at the same time, but male and female bathing is strictly segregated. It took a while to get used to the heat but when I did I enjoyed having a soak. I emerged from the bath feeling dizzy from the heat and it took a few minutes to feel steady.

Traditional cedar bath known as ofuro

After a bath I dressed in a yukata, which looked like dressing gown. Meanwhile our cycling clothes were collected, to be returned the next morning, washed, ironed and folded. This was just one of the many reasons we preferred to stay at a ryokan.

Yukata are worn after bathing

Japanese meals did not meet out substantial energy requirements. After a day of cycling we developed a big appetite and the small quantities served at dinner time were inadequate. After dinner we would go into town to find a restaurant where we filled up on rice, chicken and fish. We wore the distinctively-patterned yukata supplied by the ryokan, so everyone knew where we were staying.

We returned to our ryokan to find the living room converted to a bedroom. Sliding doors in one wall revealed a shallow wardrobe containing our futon mattresses and other bedding. The futons were laid out radiating around a low table where a charcoal fire burned all night. Blankets were draped over the table to prevent heat escaping. With this heat source we only needed a thin doona to remain warm throughout the night, despite freezing temperatures outside.

Our visit to Izumo-taisha was coming to an end, but we had not finished with the temple built by gods. Okuninushi was known as The Lord of the Central Land of Reed Plains, another name for Japan. Young lovers pray to Okuninushi, for he is also the god of relationships, by writing a wish on some paper and tying the paper to a branch of a conifer in the temple garden. They then clap their hands four times during prayer, twice for themselves and twice for their actual or desired partner. We visited the statue of Okuninushi at Izumo-taisha, and I did a lot of clapping.

Statue of the god Okuninushi at Izumo-taisha

The Daily News

by Jurgen Lett

On a cold spring afternoon, the French merchant liner steamed into Kobe harbour. On board were my new friends Franz Gruber and Pierre Piroche. We wanted to ride all the major islands of Japan, but we had no bicycles. Franz had a bold plan to get sponsorship for our cycling adventure from a Japanese newspaper. The three of us tried our luck at the offices of the local newspaper, the Kobe Shimbun, where we were fortunate to meet Mrs Morioka.

The newspaper Kobe Shinbun is still operating, but has gone online

Mrs Morioka introduced us to the manager of the Kawamura Cycle Company, who hosted us with lunch of sushi, our first experience of raw fish. The manager then took us to his office and, after a few words of welcome, took out a tailor’s tape measure, and took measurements of my inside leg and height. Three days later we picked up our custom-made touring bikes. These bikes were robust, with brown steel frames and had three gears. They proved to be very reliable on the mostly gravel roads we traversed. Seventy per cent of Japanese roads were unsealed at the time.

Our bikes were custom-made by the Kawamura Cycle Company

Kawamura Cycle Company had shops all over Japan where we could get our bikes fixed for free. The only price we paid was to advertise the company with a small flag on our bikes sporting the Kawamura name and logo.

Back at the Kobe Shimbun office Mrs Morioka took a photo of us with our new bikes and we appeared in the very first edition of the Daily Look newspaper.

Photo from Daily Look sports paper
Article and photo in the first edition of the Daily Look. L to R Franz, Pierre and Jurgen

Then the manager of Kobe Shimbun invited us into his office and made an offer. The company was starting a national daily sports paper, The Daily Look, and they needed stories. The offer was that we write an article about our travels and take photos, and they would be published each day in the new paper. We would be paid a modest amount, enough to cover food and lodgings. The first edition was to be published on 1st May 1961, giving us one month to get organised.

Franz wrote most of the articles, although Pierre and I also contributed. As we wrote every day, we quickly ran out of interesting material, so we created stunts to make good copy. On one occasion we rode non-stop for 27 hours, covering 372 kilometres. Another time we ate noodles from the handlebars of our bikes using chopsticks . We were being challenged not just by the rough mountainous roads but by the need to develop novel stories every day.

The land of the rising sun

by Jurgen Lett

I was intrigued by the mysterious land of Japan but I knew little of the country and its’ people. I knew that it was mountainous and I loved the idea of cycling around the many islands.

I had been touring around south east Asia on my bike, including Malaya, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, and had arrived in Singapore. I was sure that this was the end of the road, and that I must turn my wheels back the way I had come. However I felt that luck was with me when I heard that a liner from the French merchant shipping company Messageries Maritime was in port. It was heading for Japan, the land of the rising sun.

Poster for Messageries Maritime

The French liner accepted passengers on a tight budget, with accommodation on stretchers in the hold of the ship. I had just enough to pay for the ticket, but not enough to bring my bike. I took my bike to the police headquarters in Singapore with the intention of picking it up on the way home. But I never returned to Singapore.

Onboard I met my future cycling companions Frenchman Pierre and German Franz. They were friends who had been travelling and working together for years, including working at the Wittenoom Gorge Asbestos Mine. Wittenoom, in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, is now a ghost town, but in the 1950’s was the Pilbara’s largest town. Franz worked underground mining blue asbestos, while Pierre worked in the processing plant. Illness from breathing in asbestos fibres often takes years to develop and causes a long and painful death. I shudder to think how these two men have been affected by the fibres.

Asbestos mill, Wittenoom

Together with the other 20 passengers in the hold, I had the run of the aft section of the ship. Simple but adequate food was served at a little window. As the weather was good we spent most of our time on deck. We docked in Hong Kong, then steamed on to Kobe, Japan, arriving in the afternoon of 29 March 1961.

A child’s life during wartime

by Jurgen Lett

In 1944, at the age of ten, my sister Iris was old enough to be expected to join the Hitler Youth. My mother was not happy about it but was afraid of the consequences if Iris did not join. Iris was attracted by the activities, such as sport and camps.

The period of Nazi Gleichschaltung (forced coordination) began in 1933, where all German institutions and organizations were either Nazified or disbanded. Hitler Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach sought to eliminate all 400 of the other competing youth organizations throughout Germany. Consequently the Hitler Youth, League of German Worker Youth was the sole official youth organisation in Germany from 1933 to 1945. Although partially a paramilitary organisation, they also ran sports like athletics, skiing, cycling, fencing, swimming and soccer, plus summer camps and field trips. Iris joined and participated in some peaceful activities.

At the same time the 12th SS Panzer Division Hitler Youth was deployed in the Battle of Normandy against the British and Canadian forces near Caen, France, suffering eighty per cent losses. Nearly 20,000 Hitler Youth participated in the 12th SS Division. Over 3,000 died while attempting to repulse the D-Day invasion.

Hitler Youth, Germany’s sole official youth organisation 1933-45

While we enjoyed our childhoods in Hohensolms Castle, the war was never far away. One morning Tante Rikele called the children together but did not explain who the men in suits were, or why they had come to visit. However she made it very clear how dangerous it would be if anyone knew about them or what they were doing. Later we learned that one of the men was Dietrich Bonhoeffer, pastor, spy and uncompromising opponent of the Nazi regime. The suited men had come to talk about anti-government actions. In April 1943 Bonhoeffer was arrested by the gestapo and imprisoned at Tegel, near Berlin. Accused of plotting to kill Adolf Hitler, he was tried and found guilty. He was executed on 9 April 1945, as the Nazi regime was collapsing.

Dietrich Bonhoeffer

My Life in the Castle

by Jurgen Lett

Moving to Hohensolms Castle was a journey of nearly 200 kilometres from my home in Wuppertal. It was 1943 and the castle was managed by my Tante (Aunty) Rikele as a church youth centre . During the World War II it served as emergency accommodation, away from the bomb-ravaged cities. Built in the 14th century, this Medieval castle is now an international language school.

Hohensolms Castle

Fuel was in short supply and a solution had to be found to take my mother Martha, sister Iris and I to our new home. Our neighbour, who owned a trucking company, agreed to take us in a truck which had been modified to run on timber. A wood oven behind the cabin heated the wood without burning it, producing gas which fueled the motor. These wood gas generators were not uncommon during and immediately after World War II, as Germany produced Holzgas kits to retrofit to cars, trucks and even tanks to preserve the limited supply of fuel.

Truck running on wood gas

I remember stopping to gather more timber from the forest, before continuing on our way. The truck had insufficient room in the cabin for our little family, so I traveled in the back amongst our belongings. I found a space between the furniture, and made a nest of straw. A spare tyre was fastened on top of the nest and I popped my head up through the tyre to watch the view. I felt pretty special.

Living in the castle was like living in a commune. The meals were taken communally, starting and ending with prayer. Tante Margarete and Tante Amanda managed the kitchen, with the older children helping to prepare the meals. Finding food for so many people every day was a constant struggle. We kids collected bucket loads of stinging nettles, which were made into a delicious spinach. We were careful to avoid touching the leaves, as the sting from them lasted for days.

Most of the people in the castle were cousins, uncles, aunties or extended family, with only a few families who were not related to me. Most of the men had been recruited to the army, or, like my father, who was an architect and a master builder, to essential services. Consequently there were only two men at the castle, Onkel (Uncle) Theo and Onkel Paul, who were too old for military service. Occasionally other uncles came to visit while on leave from the army. They were happy times. My favourite was Onkel Gustav, Tante Margarete’s husband. Sadly he was killed in the war.

Debt Collector

by Ian Lett, based on a booklet sent to parishioners by the United Evangelical Mission (VEM) circa 1909

On the morning of the third day, the prau reached Mentawai. The cool air of the morning sent a shiver through the crew as they entered Sikakap Straight, the narrow passage separating the islands of North and South Pagai. They had reached their destination. It was unusually quiet along the shore. “Strange”, Feng Lei said to himself. “Usually at this time of day people are out in their boats fishing. There is something going on”.

Traditional Indonesia prau

Fung Lei had come to the village of Taikako on business. He had sold the local villagers bush knives, and had come back to collect what he was owed. Payment would be in rattan, a tropical vine which grew in the rainforest. The Dutch warehouse in Padang paid good money for every load he delivered. Rattan had become a popular material for making furniture in Britain and Europe. Indonesia was one of the main suppliers of this versatile fibre.

Vintage rattan furniture

Fung Lei had found the Mentawai villagers slow to pay, but he had never waited this long. The last time he went to collect his debts the rimata (sacrificing priest) threatened him with a poison arrow if he didn’t leave immediately. This time he was determined to get what he was owed. “I am rowing to the village now, and will be back by sundown” he said to his crew.

They lowered a dugout into the water and dragged it through the shallows to the mouth of a creek. Fung Lei and his Malay companion got in, and with a few paddle strokes they started their trip inland to Taikako.

Uma or longhouse, Mentawai Islands

Outside the uma (longhouse) villagers were relaxing. The priest (rimata) had declared a punen, or religious festival, which meant it was a holiday. The women exchanged their old palm leaf skirts for new ones. Children played with their mother’s big hats, while the women adorned each other with flowers in their hair, around their necks and wrists. Men sat and talked in the shade. Work could wait.

The happy noise died down as the priest, Si Manu, appeared at the entrance of the uma. Heads were lowered respectfully as he descended the log stairs. He walked amongst the crowd, swinging his ceremonial staff over their heads in blessing from the gods. He held a dead chicken, onto which he would transfer the people’s sins, and in its blood, all their wrongdoings would diminish.

In Search of my Moyang

by Ian Lett

A sub-woofer the size of a truck tyre pounded my leg like a shopping mall Chinese masseuse. Indo pop (Indonesian pop music) blared from the multiple speakers of the minivan-taxi, with massive guitar riffs washing over my fellow passengers. Seven school girls wearing hijabs sat opposite, managing to communicate to each other, despite the deafening music. The Manager of Tourism in Mentawai, Dr Dinul Harbi, sat next to me, as we travelled to his home outside the city of Padang, Sumatra. It was August 2008, and I had come to see the grave of my moyang (great grandfather) on the Indonesian islands of Mentawai.

I had met Dinul, or Edy as he preferred to be called, while walking along the Padang riverfront. “Hello. Are you Australian? I’ve come from Sikakap” he said cheerfully. I stopped, wondering who this well-dressed man with a gentle smile could be. Wearing patent leather shoes and a large gold ring, he stood out from the traders and travelers at the city’s main port. How had he guessed my nationality? Was it a coincidence that he had come from the tiny Mentawai village I was booked to sail to the next day?

My moyang (great grandfather), missionary August Lett

I revealed my intention to visit the grave of my moyang, missionary August Lett. Edy’s demeanour changed as he solemnly told me that it had been a misunderstanding that led to the killing of August Lett. The missionary had used the word ‘father’ in a way which was forbidden in the Mentawai culture. August was referring to the Holy Father, but the Mentawains thought that he was evoking the ‘spiritus’ of the late father of a local man. The misunderstanding led to August being stabbed multiple times while visiting a village in Mentawai’s South Pagai Island. He died many hours later, in the arms of his wife Dora.

Edy took my hand, and we walked along the river, hand in hand. It was a friendly gesture, but it felt strange to be holding the hand of a man I had met just moments earlier. An hour later we arrived at his house in a rural village where roosters crowed in the street, and where I met his wife and four children. Dishes of chilli-encrusted carp, rendang and nasi goreng were placed on the table in front of me. I was embarrassed to find that all this food was for me. The familiy waited while I ate, but I realised that the remaining food would be eaten by the family later. As I ate Edy wrote a letter of introduction to his uncle in Sikakap. His name, Mr Gunter, is also my second name. I knew I was in the right place.

Beef rendang

August’s story

by Ian Lett

Carolina Lett was born in St Petersburg in 1821, when this port city on the Baltic Sea was the capital of Imperial Russia. She had three children, the oldest being my grandfather on my father’s side, August. He had a sister who was a year older, and a brother, age unknown. Carolina did not marry and nothing is recorded of the children’s father, or fathers*. August took his mother’s surname Lett, and that is how I inherited the name.

August was born in Strasbourg, Alsace, France on 6 September 1861 .
Carolina died when August was nine years old and he was sent to an orphanage. The children were separated and August thought that his sister had died, but ten years later he found that she was living with another family.

August served an apprenticeship and became a baker. He then joined the army, where he learned to play the bugle. August was so righteous and sincere in his religious beliefs that he was teased by his fellow soldiers. He was uncompromising in his views and was not universally liked.

*This data comes from my Ahnen-Pass, or Ancestor Passport, which listed ancestors of citizens of Nazi Germany. It was also known colloquially as the Nazi Passport. While not compulsory, it was a convenient way for those without Jewish heritage to show this to authorities. For those with a Jewish ancestor, the Ahnen Pass showed a “J” next to the ancestor’s name. The primary objective of the Ahnen Pass was to create extensive profiling based on racial data.

Family tree showing Jurgen #1, August #4 and Carolina #9

Jurgen’s story

by Jurgen Lett

A fertiliser silo exploded a few kilometers from my grandfather’s flower nursery. The family were picking flowers for the market when the blast knocked them all to the ground. Several lost consciousness. When they came to they found a huge boulder amongst the flowers. The glasshouses were destroyed. My mother, Martha Genaehr, was 18 years old.

The family belonged to the United Evangelical Mission (VEM) and several family members had worked as missionaries in China and Indonesia (former Dutch East Indies). They asked the church if they knew someone who could redesign the glasshouses. Ernst Lett arrived at the front door. Remarkably, he lived in the family home while the glasshouses were being designed and built. Ernst became part of the family, and later became friendly with Martha. While they were keen on each other, it was over ten years before they were married, mainly because they could not afford a wedding and setting up a house.

Ernst Lett, brick layer, master builder, architect, building inspector

Ernst was required to study architecture and learn a trade as part of his training as a Baumeister (master builder). He chose the trade of bricklayer, and here can be seen on the tools. Note the wooden clogs. He later worked as a building inspector for the City of Wuppertal, with an office in the town hall. Ernst was born in 1900 and this photo was taken in the 1920’s.

Martha was born in 1903 and had six sisters and five brothers. She worked as an au pair in Utrecht, Netherlands while she was single. All of Martha’s brothers played brass instruments and on Ernst’s birthday they stood outside his bedroom and play for him. Not wanting to miss out, Ernst jumped out of bed, climbed through the bedroom window and ran around the back of the house. He stood behind the brass quintet and played with them on his cornet, for his own birthday.

Cornet aka piston